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2016 Jun 312-50 Study Guide Questions:
Q271. Which of the following is the best way an attacker can passively learn about technologies used in an organization?
A. By sending web bugs to key personnel
B. By webcrawling the organization web site
C. By searching regional newspapers and job databases for skill sets technology hires need to possess in the organization
D. By performing a port scan on the organization's web site
Explanation: Note: Sending web bugs, webcrawling their site and port scanning are considered "active" attacks, the question asks "passive"
Q272. The GET method should never be used when sensitive data such as credit is being sent to a CGI program. This is because any GET command will appear in the URL and will be logged by any servers. For example, let’s say that you’ve entered your credit card information into a form that uses the GET method. The URL may appear like this:
The GET method appends the credit card number to the URL. This means that anyone with access to a server log will be able to obtain this information.
How would you protect from this type of attack?
A. Replace the GET with POST method when sending data
B. Never include sensitive information in a script
C. Use HTTOS SSLV3 to send the data instead of plain HTTPS
D. Encrypt the data before you send using GET method
Explanation: If the method is "get", the user agent takes the value of action, appends a ? to it, then appends the form data set, encoded using the application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type. The user agent then traverses the link to this URI. If the method is "post" --, the user agent conducts an HTTP post transaction using the value of the action attribute and a message created according to the content type specified by the enctype attribute.
Q273. Lori is a Certified Ethical Hacker as well as a Certified Hacking Forensics Investigator working as an IT security consultant. Lori has been hired on by Kiley Innovators, a large marketing firm that recently underwent a string of thefts and corporate espionage incidents. Lori is told that a rival marketing company came out with an exact duplicate product right before Kiley Innovators was about to release it. The executive team believes that an employee is leaking information to the rival company. Lori questions all employees, reviews server logs, and firewall logs; after which she finds nothing. Lori is then given permission to search through the corporate email system. She searches by email being sent to and sent from the rival marketing company.
She finds one employee that appears to be sending very large email to this other marketing company, even though they should have no reason to be communicating with them. Lori tracks down the actual emails sent and upon opening them, only finds picture files attached to them. These files seem perfectly harmless, usually containing some kind of joke. Lori decides to use some special software to further examine the pictures and finds that each one had hidden text that was stored in each picture.
What technique was used by the Kiley Innovators employee to send information to the rival marketing company?
A. The Kiley Innovators employee used cryptography to hide the information in the emails sent
B. The method used by the employee to hide the information was logical watermarking
C. The employee used steganography to hide information in the picture attachments
D. By using the pictures to hide information, the employee utilized picture fuzzing
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Q274. During the intelligence gathering phase of a penetration test, you come across a press release by a security products vendor stating that they have signed a multi-million dollar agreement with the company you are targeting. The contract was for vulnerability assessment tools and network based IDS systems. While researching on that particular brand of IDS you notice that its default installation allows it to perform sniffing and attack analysis on one NIC and caters to its management and reporting on another NIC. The sniffing interface is completely unbound from the TCP/IP stack by default. Assuming the defaults were used, how can you detect these sniffing interfaces?
A. Use a ping flood against the IP of the sniffing NIC and look for latency in the responses.
B. Send your attack traffic and look for it to be dropped by the IDS.
C. Set your IP to that of the IDS and look for it as it attempts to knock your computer off the network.
D. The sniffing interface cannot be detected.
Explanation: When a Nic is set to Promiscuous mode it just blindly takes whatever comes through to it network interface and sends it to the Application layer. This is why they are so hard to detect. Actually you could use ARP requests and Send them to every pc and the one which responds to all the requests can be identified as a NIC on Promiscuous mode and there are some very special programs that can do this for you. But considering the alternatives in the question the right answer has to be that the interface cannot be detected.
Q275. Jim’s organization has just completed a major Linux roll out and now all of the organization’s systems are running the Linux 2.5 kernel. The roll out expenses has posed constraints on purchasing other essential security equipment and software. The organization requires an option to control network traffic and also perform stateful inspection of traffic going into and out of the DMZ.
Which built-in functionality of Linux can achieve this?
A. IP Tables
B. IP Chains
C. IP Sniffer
D. IP ICMP
Explanation: iptables is a user space application program that allows a system administrator to configure the netfilter tables, chains, and rules (described above). Because iptables requires elevated privileges to operate, it must be executed by user root, otherwise it fails to function. On most Linux systems, iptables is installed as /sbin/iptables. IP Tables performs stateful inspection while the older IP Chains only performs stateless inspection.
Q276. What type of Trojan is this?
A. RAT Trojan
B. E-Mail Trojan
C. Defacement Trojan
D. Destructing Trojan
E. Denial of Service Trojan
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Q277. John is using a special tool on his Linux platform that has a signature database and is therefore able to detect hundred of vulnerabilities in UNIX, Windows, and commonly-used web CGI scripts. Additionally, the database detects DDoS zombies and Trojans. What would be the name of this multifunctional tool?
Explanation: Nessus is the world's most popular vulnerability scanner, estimated to be used by over 75,000 organizations world-wide. Nmap is mostly used for scanning, not for detecting vulnerabilities. Hping is a free packet generator and analyzer for the TCP/IP protocol and make is used to automatically build large applications on the *nix plattform.
Q278. Symmetric encryption algorithms are known to be fast but present great challenges on the key management side. Asymmetric encryption algorithms are slow but allow communication with a remote host without having to transfer a key out of band or in person. If we combine the strength of both crypto systems where we use the symmetric algorithm to encrypt the bulk of the data and then use the asymmetric encryption system to encrypt the symmetric key, what would this type of usage be known as?
A. Symmetric system
B. Combined system
C. Hybrid system
D. Asymmetric system
Explanation: Because of the complexity of the underlying problems, most public-key algorithms involve operations such as modular multiplication and exponentiation, which are much more computationally expensive than the techniques used in most block ciphers, especially with typical key sizes. As a result, public-key cryptosystems are commonly "hybrid" systems, in which a fast symmetric-key encryption algorithm is used for the message itself, while the relevant symmetric key is sent with the message, but encrypted using a public-key algorithm. Similarly, hybrid signature schemes are often used, in which a cryptographic hash function is computed, and only the resulting hash is digitally signed.
Q279. What type of Virus is shown here?
A. Macro Virus
B. Cavity Virus
C. Boot Sector Virus
D. Metamorphic Virus
E. Sparse Infector Virus
Q280. Smurf is a simple attack based on IP spoofing and broadcasts. A single packet (such as an ICMP Echo Request) is sent as a directed broadcast to a subnet on the Internet. All the machines on that subnet respond to this broadcast. By spoofing the source IP Address of the packet, all the responses will get sent to the spoofed IP Address. Thus, a hacker can often flood a victim with hundreds of responses for every request the hacker sends out.
Who are the primary victims of these attacks on the Internet today?
A. IRC servers are the primary victim to smurf attacks
B. IDS devices are the primary victim to smurf attacks
C. Mail Servers are the primary victim to smurf attacks
D. SPAM filters are the primary victim to surf attacks
Explanation: IRC servers are the primary victim to smurf attacks. Script-kiddies run programs that scan the Internet looking for "amplifiers" (i.e. subnets that will respond). They compile lists of these amplifiers and exchange them with their friends. Thus, when a victim is flooded with responses, they will appear to come from all over the Internet. On IRCs, hackers will use bots (automated programs) that connect to IRC servers and collect IP addresses. The bots then send the forged packets to the amplifiers to inundate the victim.
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